DI-UMONS : Dépôt institutionnel de l’université de Mons

Recherche transversale
(titres de publication, de périodique et noms de colloque inclus)
2016-10-27 - Colloque/Présentation - communication orale - Anglais - 1 page(s)

Richir Jonathan , Batigny Antoine , Georges Nadège, Fullgrabe Lovina, Suvarov Paul, Gobert Sylvie, Lepoint Gilles, Borges Alberto, Champenois Willy, Franck Fabrice, Roberty Stéphane, Lejeune Pierre, Abadie Arnaud, Leduc Michèle, Boissery Pierre, Rigaud V, Andral Bruno, Lefebvre A, Belin C, Naud-Masson N, Maurer D, Artigas F, Wacquet G, Silva Joao, Santos Rui, Elkalay Khalid, Khalil Karima, Watson Gordon, Grosjean Philippe , "EcoNum, a research unit devoted to marine environment monitoring" in 2ème workshop "Environnement Marin et Développement Durable: Quels enjeux pour demain?", Essaouira, Maroc, 2016

  • Codes CREF : Sciences exactes et naturelles (DI1000)
  • Unités de recherche UMONS : Ecologie numérique des milieux aquatiques (S807)
  • Instituts UMONS : Institut de Recherche sur les Systèmes Complexes (Complexys), Institut des Biosciences (Biosciences)
Texte intégral :

Abstract(s) :

(Anglais) The monitoring of coastal environments remains a research domain of great interest and concern. Coastal ecosystems are threatened by natural and human-induced stressors and are, as transitional environments, particularly sensitive to disturbances. EcoNum first research thematic revolves around hermatypic corals, calcifying organisms, and their adaptation potentials to environmental changes including by using original and patented chemostats. The studied organisms are grown and maintained in artificial mesocosms that simulate environmental conditions of a natural system. This infrastructure allows to perform long-term experiments, giving time to organisms to adapt to the tested conditions (e.g., increased temperature or lowered pH). Longer-term studies have demonstrated that many organisms are more resistant to environmental stressors than previously observed on the short-term. EcoNum also studies coastal plankton abundance and diversity. Plankton is particularly sensitive to physicochemical changes of water bodies. The classification and the enumeration of planktonic organisms require specialized tools in order to analyse time series of multiple samples. EcoNum has developed a software for the semi-automatic classification of planktonic organisms called Zoo/PhytoImage. This software has been used to study a 10-year time series of coastal Mediterranean zooplankton samples. The concomitant analysis of environmental parameters registered at high frequency with specific statistical tools such as the R package pastecs allows to understand the processes governing the changes observed in plankton assemblages. The use and the development of statistical tools in R (e.g., Zoo/Phytoimage, pastecs) is a priority of EcoNum to favour open access knowledge and reproductive sciences. EcoNum research topics also focus on coastal ecotoxicology. Chemicals, including trace elements, remain contaminants of concern, mainly in coastal environments that are the final sink of inland pollution sources. The chemical integrity of coastal ecosystems thus has to be accurately monitored. The partitioning of chemicals between their dissolved, particulate and sedimentary phases does not provide information on their bioavailability. EcoNum thus monitors coastal waters using bioindicator species such as seagrasses, mussels or sand worms. A global map of the contamination of the Mediterranean by trace elements has been drawn using seagrasses has bioindicator species. EcoNum also studies trace element ecology and toxicology. For instance, it has demonstrated the toxicity of copper on the coral Seriatopora hystrix and it's symbiont's photosynthetic processes, or its bioaccumulation and basipetal translocation towards rhizomes in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica as reserve nutrient for subsequent leaf growth. Finally, coastal vegetated systems are potential carbon thinks (or sources) in the global carbon cycle. Therefore, EcoNum studies the primary productivity of seagrass meadows, from the individual to the community, with measuring techniques as diverse as PAM-fluorometry or biomass production determination. To conclude, EcoNum is a research unit devoted to marine environment monitoring. It develops research thematics on major coastal communities such as coral reefs, seagrass beds or plankton assemblages and studies their natural dynamics and the effects of stressors on their global functioning.

Mots-clés :
  • (Anglais) coastal ecosystems
  • (Anglais) seagrass
  • (Anglais) R
  • (Anglais) plankton
  • (Anglais) EcoNum
  • (Anglais) reproductive sciences
  • (Anglais) ecotoxicology
  • (Anglais) monitoring
  • (Anglais) coral