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2017-03-15 - Livre/Chapitre ou partie - Anglais - 37 page(s)

Poivre Mélanie , Nachtergael Amandine , Bunel Valérian , Okusa Ndjolo Philippe , Duez Pierre , "Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of herbal products" in Pelkonen Olavi, Duez Pierre , Vuorela Pia Maarit, Vuorela Heikki, "Toxicology of Herbal Products" , Pelkonen Olavi, Duez Pierre , Vuorela Pia Maarit, Vuorela Heikki, 978-3-319-43804-7

  • Edition : Springer
  • Codes CREF : Chimie analytique (DI1314), Pharmacognosie (DI3410), Sciences pharmaceutiques (DI3400), Toxicologie pharmaceutique (DI3440)
  • Unités de recherche UMONS : Chimie thérapeutique et Pharmacognosie (M136)
  • Instituts UMONS : Institut des Sciences et Technologies de la Santé (Santé)
Texte intégral :

Abstract(s) :

(Anglais) In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) recorded 14 million new cases of cancer and 8.2 million cancer-related deaths. Remarkably the WHO estimates that 30 % of cancer mortalities are due to lifestyle choices and environmental factors that can and should be avoided. In line with these recommendations, the present chapter discusses the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of herbal products. Although often perceived as innocuous by the general public, many herbs harbor phytochemicals that are either directly reactive towards DNA or likely to disturb cellular homeostasis, cell cycle and/or genome maintenance mechanisms; this may translate into genotoxicity, carcinogenicity or co-carcinogenicity. Genotoxicity refers to the deleterious effect of a chemical compound or a physical event on the genetic material; such genotoxic events are considered hallmarks of cancer risk. Nevertheless many damages to the genetic material can be efficiently bypassed and/or repaired by the numerous genome maintenance mechanisms of the cell and may not lead to cancer. The long-term safety evaluation is probably better investigated through carcinogenicity which denotes the capacity of a chemical substance or a mixture of chemical substances to induce cancer or increase its incidence. The major mechanisms of carcinogenicity are discussed along with biomarkers and approved regulatory guidelines. The recent development of innovative carcinogenicity testing strategies, especially based on functional genomics, are debated and evaluated for a possible application to the precocious evaluation of herbal products long-term safety. Finally, this chapter draws up from literature the current state of knowledge on proven or suspected carcinogenic herbal products.