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2017-06-14 - Colloque/Présentation - communication orale - Anglais - 1 page(s)

Meunier Nicolas , Chauvy Remi , Thomas Diane , De Weireld Guy , "Techno-Economic and Environmental Assessment of the Conversion of CO2 into Methanol" in 9th Trondheim Conference on CO2 Capture, Transport and Storage (TCCS-9), Trondheim, Norvège, 2017

  • Codes CREF : Traitement des effluents gazeux (DI3843), Technologie de l'environnement, contrôle de la pollution (DI3841), Thermodynamique chimique (DI132C), Génie chimique (DI2721), Chimie (DI1300)
  • Unités de recherche UMONS : Génie des Procédés chimiques et biochimiques (F505), Thermodynamique, Physique mathématique (F506)
  • Instituts UMONS : Institut de Recherche en Energétique (Energie)

Abstract(s) :

(Anglais) For several decades, the reduction of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from industries (power plants, cement plants …) has become one of the most crucial issue of our society. Therefore, new innovating technologies concerning Carbon Capture, Storage and Reuse (catalytic conversions, building blocks for polymers, dry/wet reforming, photo-electro-catalysis …) are widely investigated. In this framework, a methodological two-step approach has been developed to evaluate the potential of each CO2 Reuse activity based on different criteria such as the Technology Readiness Levels (TRL), the timeframe to deployment and the amount of CO2 reused in the process. A particular attention is also given to the route potential to convert large CO2 volumes (as cement plants designed with the Best Available Technology (BAT) still emits 2500 tons CO2 per day) and to the origin of production of co-reactants used in these processes such as hydrogen, epoxides or minerals in order to reduce their dependence on fossil feedstock. Several routes fulfilling the required criteria (such as the methanol and methane catalytic hydrogenation or the CO2-based mineral carbonations) were then selected for in-depth analyses and compared to their respective classical way of production to demonstrate their potential for the reduction of CO2 emissions and fossil resources depletion. Following this study, the next step is the techno-economic and environmental investigation of the catalytic conversion of purified CO2 into methanol, one of the most promising valuable chemical compounds selected from the above-described method. The current research is then dedicated to the optimization of the catalytic conversion process that converts purified CO2 into methanol. This process relies on two catalytic reactors: the first shaft reactor being adiabatic (without recycle) and the second one being tubular, isotherm and working at 260°C (with recycle). The catalysts used in these reactors are CuO/ZnO/Al2O3-type catalysts, which are currently described by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic laws described in the works of Graaf et al.[1]. The water-methanol mixture produced in both reactors is then flashed and separated in a distillation column to provide a pure and continuous methanol stream with a purity higher than 99 mol%. The simulations of this conversion process have been performed on Aspen Plus® in which the operative parameters (such as the pressure/temperature in reactors, the size of reactors, the pressure of the flash unit and distillation column, …) have been varied to quantify their respective influence on the process performances (methanol purity and recovery). As a result, this study also proposes a methodological approach to optimize this CO2 conversion unit regarding these process performances, but also regarding economic indicators such as OPEX and CAPEX. Apart from the simulated results, experiments are conducted to update the kinetic laws described by Graaf et al. in 1990 with currently available commercial catalysts to compare their conversion performances and evaluate their assets. These experiments are conducted in our laboratory on a micro-pilot scale reactor with CO2/H2 mixtures to illustrate the influence of operative parameters on the conversion performances of the selected catalysts and to validate the predicative results obtained by the simulations. Heat integration is another crucial point investigated in this study with the aim to propose an integrated and optimized methanol conversion process. Finally, this study also presents an in-depth environmental evaluation through a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of the CO2-to-Methanol conversion process in order to evaluate the real impact of this process and ensure its completely positive environmental balance in the potential reduction of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. References: [1] G. H. Graaf, H. Scholtens, E. J. Stamhuis, and A. A. C. M. Beenackers, “Intra-particle diffusion limitations in low-pressure methanol synthesis,” Chem. Eng. Sci., vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 773–783, Jan. 1990.